A cross-section of the eye

The Pupil

The pupil is a natural opening through which light is able to reach the interior of the eye. It is surrounded by the iris, the muscles of which increase or decrease the size of the pupil depending on the incidence of light.

 

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The Upper Eyelid

The upper eyelid is the anatomic structure forming the frontal margin of the eye socket, together with the lower eyelid. It is comprised of muscles, glands, connective tissue and skin and serves to protect and moisten the eye. Changes to the eyelid can occur with advanced age, restricting the field of vision, e.g. “drooping eyelid”.

Treatments

[ plastic surgery … > ]

 

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The Lower Eyelid

The lower eyelid is the anatomic structure forming the frontal margin of the eye socket, together with the upper eyelid. It is comprised of muscles, glands, connective tissue and skin and serves to protect and moisten the eye. Changes to the lower eyelid can occur with advanced age, resulting in “tear sacs”, for instance, or malpositioning such as ectropium or entropium.

Treatments

[ plastic surgery … > ]

 

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The Lachrimal Glands

The lachrimal glands are situated inside the eye cavity, to the side above the eye. They produce most of the lachrimal fluid that is distributed by the blinking of the eyelids and which serves to clean the conjunctiva, as well as moistening and supplying nutrients to the cornea.

 

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The Lachrimal Sacs

The lachrimal sacs are situated inside the eye cavity and form part of the lachrimal drainage system. This begins at the inner corner of the eye and comprises the lachrimal ducts, the lachrimal sacs and the nasolachrimal duct. Constriction and obstruction of the lachrimal drainage system leads to an irritating watering of the eyes.

Treatments

[ lachrimal duct surgery … > ]

 

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The lachrimal Ducts

The lachrimal ducts are part of the lachrimal drainage system. They begin at the inner corner of the eye and drain the lachrimal fluid into the lachrimal sacs. From here the lachrimal fluid is relayed to the nose where it evaporates. Constriction and obstruction of the lachrimal ducts can lead to an irritating watering of the eyes.

Treatments

[ lachrimal duct surgery … > ]

 

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The Iris

The iris is the visible, coloured area of the eye. It has a hole in the middle: the pupil. The iris functions like the aperture on a camera: circular muscle fibres are able to narrow or widen the pupil depending on the incidence of light.

 

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Click on the individual terms for more information about the individual parts of the eye and about the treatment methods often used in these areas.